Wen-jun Zhang, Zhi-hong Guo, Jia-feng Zhang, Jun Jiang and Xiao-hong Pan
This review summarizes microbial translocation in HIV infection. Microbial translocation can be measured by bacterial products in plasma, such as LPS and bacterial DNA or RNA fragments, or indirectly by LBP, sCD14, EndoCAb, and antiflagellin antibodies. In some study, these markers had contrary results. May be microbial translocation is not the sole driver of HIV progression. Several lines of research indicated that a major contributor to immune activation and disease progression during HIV infection was microbial translocation. Although successful treatment with ART increased GALT CD4+ T cells and suppresses HIV RNA, the numbers of these cells did not return to prior levels. There is a negative effect of mucosal immune dysfunction and microbial translocation on HIV disease progression in the presence of ART. The topic of microbial translocation and immune activation in HIV infection still is a research focus.