Saber Shona, Abdel-Wakeel Essawy, Sherif Mohamed Zaki and Tarek Ibrahim Abd EI-Galil
Background: Cisplatinum is one of the older chemotherapy drugs which is been used for decades. In spite of its significant anticancer activity, its clinical use is often limited by its undesirable side effects. The liver is known to accumulate significant amounts of cisplatinum thus hepatotoxicity could be associated with cisplatinum treatment.
Aim: The aim of the present study is to detect the histopathological effect of cisplatinum on the liver of the adult albino rat and the possible protective role of vitamin E in prevention of cisplatinum-induced hepatotoxicity.
Material and methods: Thirty adult male albino rats were used in the current study. The rats were divided into3 groups; control, cisplatinum and cisplatinum +vitamin E groups. Histological, transmission electro-microscopic as well as morphometric studies were used in the study.
Results: Histological examination of the liver of the cisplatinum treated rats exhibited the presence of congestion of the central veins and hepatic sinusoids. Massive intracytoplasmic vacuolations, margination of chromatin with the occurrence of karryorehxis, pyknosis in the nuclei were also constant features. Kupffer cells were observed with the presence of hemosiderin granules .The ultrathin sections exhibited degeneration of the nuclei with margination of the nucleoli and irregularities of the nuclear membranes.
Slight improvement of the histological findings was observed in the liver of the cisplatinum and vitamin E treated rats. Degeneration of the hepatocytes, margination of the nucleoli, karryorehxis, apoptotic nuclei and apoptotic bodies were observed in this group.
Conclusion: Thus, it is recommended to investigate the liver capacity before the use of cisplatinum and throughout the course of treatment. Once, the liver changes start to develop, shifting to another more safe antitumor drug must be considered. As regard using vitamin E to reduce the toxic effect of the cisplatinum on the liver, it was found that vitamin E had a minimum protective role.