Kaleab Tesfaye Tegegne, Tadele Kassahun Wudu, Belay Melaku
Background: By accounting for 4.3% of all disability-adjusted life years, depression ranks third among the world’s top causes of illness burden. By the year 2020, it is expected to overtake heart disease as the second-largest cause of disease burden worldwide. In terms of burden, mental illness is the most prevalent non-communicable ailment in Ethiopia. It has been hypothesized that depression rates among university students are markedly higher than those observed in the general population. This study’s goal was to determine the prevalence of major depressive illness and its related risk factors among medical students at Jimma University in Ethiopia.
Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 246 selected Jimma university medical students with stratified random sampling technique. The study was conducted from June 3-10/2021. A self- administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data. PHQ-9 depression screening tool was used Pre-test was conduct 10 days prior to data collection started on (5% of the sample size) before the main study. The association between dependent and independent variable was tested by using χ² test at 95% confidence and a p-value of <0.05 was used to declare the significance of the association. A formal letter was obtained from Jimma University and given for JU registrar office to get permission and some important data.
Results: 25.61% of students were screened to have depressive disorder from which 22.36% have mild depression and 3.25 have moderate depression. 26.83% of students have history of stress/tension from which more than halve of them has depressive disorder (13.82%). There is statically significant association between independent variables sex, monthly income, history of stress or tension, performing unprotected sex, sleeping disorder, family history of mental illness, cigarette smoking, faced problem in campus and khat chewing, with depressive disorder.
Conclusion: Preventable cause of major depressive disorder in this study are Stress, unprotected sex, cigarettes smoking and khat chewing It is better to have more recreational areas such as gymnasium, functional Digital Satellite Television (DSTV) house, appropriate sport fields (football, basketball and handball) to relax students and to prevent stress or tension which is one of the major risk factor for depression.