Shabnam Bagheri, Mohammad Sadegh Masoudi, Maryam Ekramzadeh, Sara Ekramzadeh
Background: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is impairment with high prevalence amongst the pediatric population. Central Nervous System (CNS) regulates food intake and each region of the brain can be responsible for appetite control network. It seems that TBI might affect appetite control system which could result in overeating or reduced food intake. Hence, the aim of this cross sectional study was to determine, if there is a relationship between daily energy intake and satiety related hormones with Computerized Tomography scan (CT scan) findings in children with mild to moderate TBI.
Methods: Completing the demographic information (age, gender, medical disorders, etc.), dietary intake assessment, taking blood samples for biochemical evaluations, and evaluating psychological disorders using the “Rutter Children Behavior Questionnaire” were performed for each patient. The patient's CT scan was also used to determine the main area of brain injury. The timing of outcome measures was 3-6 months after injury.
Results: The results showed that in comparison with the Reference Dietary Allowance (RDA) values, calorie intake was inadequate in 32% of the patients, while 32% had excess calorie intake. It was shown that energy intake in patients with temporal lobe injury was significantly higher than in patients with frontal lobe injury or injuries to other sites of the brain. The results also showed that mean serum Ghrelin and Orexin levels in patients with temporal lobe injury were higher than patients with frontal lobe injury but no significant relationship was found regarding leptin and site of injury. Moreover, it was shown that children with frontal lobe injury had significantly more behavioral disorders.
Conclusion: To sum up, it seems that frontal lobe injury is associated with anorexia and hypophagia behaviors and temporal lobe injury might be associated with increased food intake.